Effects of Urbanization on Bioclimatic Comfort Conditions; Bolu Example


  • Savaş Çağlak Samsun Ondokuz Mayıs University
  • Kıymet Pınar Kırkık Aydemir Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University
  • Gamze Kazancı İstanbul Tecnical University


Urbanization, Bioclimatic Comfort, Sustainability, Bolu


Rapid population growth due to urbanization, increase of built surfaces, excessive asphalting and destruction of green areas, etc. factors create scorching-sultry environments in terms of cities having different climatic characteristics according to their surroundings and bioclimatic comfort. These negative comfort conditions threaten public health in cities. Bioclimatic comfort is the feeling that people are not stimulated or is comfortable against atmospheric conditions in their environment. Uncomfortable conditions cause health problems, increase in disease burden, decrease in work efficiency and psychological depression in people. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of urbanization on bioclimatic comfort conditions in Bolu, which is established at an average altitude of 600 - 900 meters, is not too big and is known for its green nature. In the study, were used 10-year measurement data between 2010 and 2019 of the Bolu meteorology station at 743 altitude representing the urban area and the Bolu Mountain meteorology station at 948 altitude representing the rural area. As a method, PET index was used through the RayMan model, which calculates many factors together in bioclimatic comfort studies and is widely used in the world. As a result of the study, while comfortable conditions were perceived in the rural station in summer, heat stresses were perceived in the city station, and  11 ˚C PET difference was observed. It was observed that the city center of Bolu is exposed to the stresses of suffocating heat in a way that threatens public health during the summer season. Urban bioclimatic comfort models should be developed with a geographical point of view to reduce the effects of urbanization on bioclimatic comfort conditions and urban planning should be made for sustainable healthy cities.