City Health Journal 2021-07-05T15:14:34+00:00 Prof. Dr. E. Didem Evci Kiraz Open Journal Systems <p>City Health Journal is an international, peer reviewed and open-access scientific publication for the academical papers on the fields of city health and public health to be published.</p> <p>City Health Journal aims to bring together the parties dealing in the fields of city and health on a joint platform. The Journal shall be an academical journal including the scientific studies, researches and analyses conducted for developing the health and wellbeing of the people living in cities. This international journal shall provide contribution to strengthening the governance among the parties included in the making and implementation of policies in regards to the topic of city health and health environment. It shall be a journal as a reference source for the decision support mechanisms on the topics of formation of health cities.</p> <p>City Health Journal is an internationally peer-reviewed journal that aims to serve as an effective tool for the researchers, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and public institutions working on the fields of health and urbanisation to share their scientific assessments, research findings and analyses.</p> <p>Scientific studies that enable points intersecting between the two different disciplines of city and health to be analysed on a joint platform. Study and research conclusions on topics such as city health emergencies, local preparedness against health emergencies, city health development plan, social participation, health impact evaluation, poverty, social determinants of health, social services, sustainable development, transportation, environment and health, city management and city planning shall be taken into assessment to be used in the journal.</p> <p>Each paper submitted to City Health Journal is initially assessed by editor. Afterwards, the peer review process commences for the selected papers. Double-blind review hiding names of authors is utilised during the reviewing process for <em>the papers submitted to City Health Journal</em>. Papers may be submitted electronically by using the below link on the website of the journal. There is no application or publishing fee for submitting your paper. Authors have to present their ORCID numbers during application.</p> Climate Sensitive Design of Public Spaces in Healthy Cities 2021-06-24T17:54:20+00:00 Seyran Büşra Gök Süleyman Toy Furkan Öztürk <p>The first city settlements in the world began to form their cores in the neolithic age. These cores, which form the core of urban spaces, have dispersed to different regions over time, synthesizing the unique geography, climate and natural elements of each region, and the morphological structure with human factors, creating urban spaces with different identity and character. Undoubtedly, the entire organization of urban spaces is shaped around the needs of people. Unfortunately, not every need can be shaped as desired because; The biggest obstacle to human needs is the fate brought by geography. All conditions brought along by geography (climate, topography, water surfaces, etc.) shape urban spaces in different forms. All the urban spaces that are shaped should be built in order for people to experience a healthier, more comfortable and quality place and to benefit from this experience at the maximum level. Within the scope of social organization, urban spaces connect the social, cultural and economic activities of people with different dynamics. With the activities of vital dialectics, it is physically reflected in the space in different functions within its own characteristic dynamics.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>It is undoubtedly the urban public spaces that create the culture, social life and quality of life of a society in the most distinct physical context, where the entire character and spirit of the society emerges through the experience of spatial practice by people. Public spaces, which are the mirrors of society, undoubtedly have a great importance in the planning discipline. Because; The planning discipline and all branches of science within this discipline aim to serve the public, the humanitarian, and to design this service by considering all the parameters of the city. Considering the importance of public spaces for both the city and the social structure of the city, every city should have a structure with its identity and character. This character can only emerge if it is designed in accordance with the city's climate, culture and geographical conditions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The aim of this study is to focus on the design of urban public spaces in a sensitive way to climate parameters. In this context, by evaluating the parameters that affect the climate change of the public spaces designed, positive and negative city examples will be presented, and inferences will be made in order to design the public spaces in a climate-sensitive manner.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Urban space, public space, climate, responsive planning</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 City Health Journal Environmental Impacts and Turkey’s Marine Ecosystems 2021-06-21T12:42:37+00:00 Füsun Öncü Arzu Morkoyunlu Yüce Beril Ömeroğlu Tapan Mohamed Hassan Sheikh Abdi <p>In this study, the environmental pressures on the seas of Turkey, aimed to assess the state of biodiversity and ecosystems. In this context, environmental impacts on the Black Sea, Marmara, Aegean and Mediterranean, ecosystem structure and measures taken were evaluated. In the light of scientific data that have been made between 2007-2020 history, Turkey is assessed ecosystem structure and biodiversity of the sea. In addition, information was given on environmental impacts, coastal management, pollution prevention studies and the ecological status of the seas.</p> 2021-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 City Health Journal Possible Health Effects of 5G Technology: A Literature Review 2021-06-15T13:50:47+00:00 Cansu Yanık Emrah Gingir Seçil Özkan <p>OBJECTIVE: Researches on whether electromagnetic environmental pollution caused by the emissions of 5G technology, which has started trial studies in our country, have negative effects on human health is increasing day by day. It is important for public health science to investigate the possible health problems that may be caused by base stations, whose number will increase significantly with the new technology. In this study, a review of the qualitative and quantitative results of existing studies in the literature was made and it was aimed to create a knowledge base for possible future 5G studies.</p> <p> </p> <p>METHOD: Literature review was conducted between January and March 2021 on PubMed, Google Scholar and ResearchGate, among the articles that included the words "5G, 5G and health, EMR" among the studies conducted in the last 10 years.</p> <p>RESULTS: The World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RF radiation in the 30 kHz-300 GHz frequency range as Group 2B as 'possible' human carcinogen in 2011. The fifth generation wireless mobile communication infrastructure (5G) will operate by utilizing new and therefore relatively unassessed supporting technologies in terms of security in order to provide higher data transfer capacity compared to previous generations. This new technology will increase the data capacity and reduce the coverage area of ​​the base stations, which will cause the base stations to be positioned more frequently. In two different studies published in 2018, the US-based National Toxicology Program (NTP) stated that high exposure to radio waves used in 2G and 3G mobile networks caused heart tumors in male rats. The research reports an increased incidence of brain and heart tumors in rats exposed to EMR generated by a radio base station. Some studies have shared their results that exposure to intense 5G radiation negatively affects eye and skin health. In some of the studies, this wavelength has been shown to induce or inhibit cell death and increase or suppress cell proliferation. On the other hand, some studies did not report any biological effects, reporting that the scientific adequacy of the studies on the negative effects of 5G base stations on health was invalid.</p> <p>CONCLUSION: Although there are researches that 5G base stations, which will increase the anxiety level of people in the future, may cause diseases such as tumors on human health, many studies also claim that the base stations are completely harmless for human health. In today's world literature, there is no definite conclusion about the effects of 5G base stations on human health. Therefore, more studies are needed to understand the effects of 5G base stations on human health.</p> 2021-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 City Health Journal The Impact of Development on Environmental Problems: An Integrated Overview of the Concept of Sustainable Development 2021-06-15T13:48:35+00:00 Funda Kaya H. Nurcan Ek <p>The rapidly increasing population of the world, industrialization and urbanization have played an important role in the economic growth and development of countries. After the Second World War, the concept of development became widespread and the development moves of all countries turned into a passion and race for growth in every sense. However, this passion for development was aimed entirely at production and consumption, without considering natural resources. Following these developments, "production for consumption purposes" has been replaced by "consumption for production purposes". While this understanding was adopted, natural resources were ignored and the cyclic structure of the natural environment was disrupted. With the deterioration of the structure of the ecosystem, after the second quarter of the twentieth century, economists turned to environmental and environmental problems and a sustainable development approach emerged. The main purpose of sustainable development is to achieve a balance between environmental protection and economic development. In this sense, sustainability is accepted as the main input of development. In this study, the impact of development on environmental problems has been investigated and the concept of sustainable development is addressed with a holistic view.</p> 2021-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 City Health Journal Medical Waste Management of Operating Room Nurse 2021-06-08T11:16:25+00:00 Şule Olgun Cansu Hazal Yanardağ <p>Operating rooms in the hospital; they are units that maintain their vitality for 24 hours, where advanced technological tools and equipment are used, various surgical techniques and methods are applied in the light of up to-date information, work in a team harmony, and need to make fast and correct decisions. For this reason, the unit where medical wastes are collected the most is the operating rooms within the hospital. There has been an increase in the amount of medical waste in recent years and the economic burden of medical wastes should be minimized, as medical wastes are more costly than other wastes. For this, an economical waste management method and efforts, to reduce the waste at its source is essential.</p> <p>The main purpose of medical waste management; in order to protect nature and people, medical wastes are collected by separation, accumulated in temporary storages and finally recovered or removed. Thus, the control of medical wastes and environmental health is ensured. Of course, the uninterrupted operation of this whole process is not easy. The most important factor in waste management; it is to use the existing resource at the highest level efficiently and to minimize the wastes that will arise later. This article, based on the literature, aims to provide up-to-date information on medical waste management in operating rooms and to raise awareness of operating room nurses on medical waste in operating rooms.</p> 2021-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 City Health Journal Pandemic – Sustainable City Goals 2021-06-15T13:40:38+00:00 Ahsen Tuğçe Yüksel Çiğdem Coşkun Hepcan <p><strong>Purpose</strong>:Pandemics and epidemics have been part of human and urban history for years. Many epidemics in the past have conflicted withurban planning policies and acts. Today, cities are stated to be the epicenters of the COVID-19 pandemic which has affected the whole world and changed our lifestyles. This situation has brought urban vulnerability and sustainability issues to the forefront regarding its effects on? pandemics. This study aims to show how the pandemic process affects cities and sustainable urban goals.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>In this study the keywords `pandemic and sustainable urban concepts` were entered into the Google Academic search engine and the Web of Science publications were filtered to assess how cities are developing their process of achieving sustainability goals.</p> <p><strong>Results and Discussion: </strong>Cities around the world have been affected by the COVID-19 epidemic. Many countries around the world have imposed bans and social restrictions to control the spread of the pandemic such as lockdowns, curfews, limiting urban park and public area access, social distancing and road closures. The measures taken to fight the pandemic have completely changed people's daily habits and lifestyles and the functioning of cities. Most public areas, such as streets, parks and social gathering areas have been reorganized according to social distancing rules.</p> <p>Pandemics can reveal the fragility of urban systems but also emphasize the need for change in planning resilient cities for the future. The COVID-19 pandemic shows that many of the new regulations and interventions for cities can benefit from a green infrastructure. What has happened in this current event has once again highlighted the need for the protection and development of the urban green infrastructure and the importance of green areas, which are essential for the sustainability of cities.</p> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic will not be the last pandemic. The growth of cities, climate change, and the deterioration of ecosystems increase the possibility of future pandemics. This pandemic provides the opportunity for cities to better prepare for future crises, reconsider existing urban planning and design works, and make sustainable decisions.</p> 2021-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 City Health Journal Evaluation of Reinforcement of Timber and Laminated Timber with Fibrous Polymer (FRP) Materials for Sustainable Structures 2021-06-24T17:52:01+00:00 Dilan Çankal Gökhan Şakar <p>A large part of the energy in the world is consumed by the construction sector. The construction industry is a sector with a high potential for environmental damage in many aspects such as unconscious raw material consumption, production processes of materials, wastes generated after the destruction of buildings. Timber is a natural building material with high aesthetic value obtained from trees, which are considered as a renewable resource and provide benefits in civil engineering applications contrary to environmental damage. However, its structural features are insufficient in some cases due to solid timber imperfections. The use of laminated timber, which is obtained by minimizing the defects of the timber, is very beneficial in terms of aesthetic, ecological and engineering features. Laminated timber has a much less harmful effect on the environment than other building materials such as concrete and steel, due to its low energy requirement and the low pollution it creates during production. For sustainability, fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials are used to repair damages or improve the current condition of historic timber structures and structures made of laminated timber. FRP provides the use of the building element with little or no loss of cross-section without disturbing the aesthetics of the structure. Within the scope of the study, the potential of timber building materials, laminated timber materials that are very suitable for the construction of green buildings and the reinforcement of these materials with fiber polymers will be evaluated within the scope of sustainability. The use of laminated timber, which is an engineering product derived from timber instead of timber, in buildings and its contribution to creating a sustainable and renewable structure in case of damage with fiber polymer will be discussed.</p> 2021-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 City Health Journal The Effects of Covering Wood Paints on the Self-Burning Resistance of Wood Material and Boards 2021-06-16T11:53:49+00:00 Hanife Kara Musa Atar <p>This study was carried out to determine the effects of various covering wood paints on the auto ignition temperature of wood materials and boards. For this purpose, samples prepared from Eastern beech (Fagus oriantalis L.), Scotch pine (Pinus silvestris L.), sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.), medium density fiberboard (MDF) and particleboard are made of acrylic, synthetic and synthetic materials according to ASTM-D-3023. It is painted in one or two layers with lacquer paint. The autoignition temperatures of the prepared samples were determined according to ASTM-ASTM E 160-50.</p> <p>As a result, the self-ignition temperature is highest in particle board (716.8 °C), lowest in Eastern beech (645.7 °C), highest in cellulosic paint (688.4 °C) in dye type, in terms of material type, and lowest in Eastern beech (645.7 °C), it was found in the lowest synthetic paint (685.7°C), the highest in one coat of paint (688.4°C) in terms of the number of coats, and the lowest in two coats of paint (685.7°C). The highest Yl+Sn+I (752.3 °C) and the lowest MDF+Sn+II (573.2 °C) were found in terms of material type, paint type and number of coats interaction. Accordingly: this situation can be taken into account in living areas with high fire risk.</p> 2021-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 City Health Journal Aquatic Ecosystem Management: The Case of Somalia 2021-06-15T13:44:52+00:00 Mohamed Hassan Sheikh Abdi Arzu Morkoyunlu Yüce Beril Ömeroğlu Tapan Füsun Öncü <p>Water is the basis of life and the driving force behind economic and social development and eradicating poverty. Water scarcity is the biggest problem facing the Somali people, where the water assets are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development, and environmental needs. Most of the data used in this study belong to the Ministry of Energy and water resources and the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation of Somalia. In addition, scientific studies on the most important water resources done by the public and private institutions, local and international NGOs in Somalia have also been benefited. Apart from Jubba and Shabelle rivers, Somalia’s main important water resources are underground waters such as boreholes, shallow wells, and springs. The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation is responsible for water resources management. This ministry conducts several works related to water and agriculture development in general. These include projects to boost irrigation systems and power output. The dependence on water is compounded by the fact that most Somalis rely on agriculture and livestock for their livelihood. Like many other developing countries, Somalia faces the challenge of efficiently developing and managing its limited water resources while maintaining water quality and preserving essential ecosystems on which water resources depend.</p> 2021-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 City Health Journal Effects of Urbanization on Bioclimatic Comfort Conditions; Bolu Example 2021-06-24T17:54:51+00:00 Savaş Çağlak Kıymet Pınar Kırkık Aydemir Gamze Kazancı <p>Rapid population growth due to urbanization, increase of built surfaces, excessive asphalting and destruction of green areas, etc. factors create scorching-sultry environments in terms of cities having different climatic characteristics according to their surroundings and bioclimatic comfort. These negative comfort conditions threaten public health in cities. Bioclimatic comfort is the feeling that people are not stimulated or is comfortable against atmospheric conditions in their environment. Uncomfortable conditions cause health problems, increase in disease burden, decrease in work efficiency and psychological depression in people. The aim of the study is to investigate the effects of urbanization on bioclimatic comfort conditions in Bolu, which is established at an average altitude of 600 - 900 meters, is not too big and is known for its green nature. In the study, were used 10-year measurement data between 2010 and 2019 of the Bolu meteorology station at 743 altitude representing the urban area and the Bolu Mountain meteorology station at 948 altitude representing the rural area. As a method, PET index was used through the RayMan model, which calculates many factors together in bioclimatic comfort studies and is widely used in the world. As a result of the study, while comfortable conditions were perceived in the rural station in summer, heat stresses were perceived in the city station, and&nbsp; 11 ˚C PET difference was observed. It was observed that the city center of Bolu is exposed to the stresses of suffocating heat in a way that threatens public health during the summer season. Urban bioclimatic comfort models should be developed with a geographical point of view to reduce the effects of urbanization on bioclimatic comfort conditions and urban planning should be made for sustainable healthy cities.</p> 2021-07-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 City Health Journal